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Pew Hispanic Center;
Reviews the monthly trends in the major labor market indicators for Hispanics since January 2000. Analyzes changes in Hispanic employment and wages during 2003, and examines changes in employment by selected characteristics of Hispanic workers.
Rapid economic change over the past 25 years has dramatically altered the character and performance of the labor market, making it increasingly difficult for workers, particularly those with low skills, to find jobs and careers that will enable them to attain a decent standard of living. A few workforce development programs are seeking to overcome this challenge by developing sectoral employment strategies that seek to alter the labor market in a targeted occupation to the benefit of all low-income workers in that sector, not just their own program participants. This report discusses the key elements of a sectoral employment strategy and highlights the experiences of thirteen seasoned workforce programs implementing such sectoral strategies as business development, job training, organizing, and research and policy analysis.
Pew Hispanic Center;
Tracks the labor market trends for Hispanics from the first quarter of 2003 to the first quarter of 2004. Examines job gains by citizens and non-citizens nationally, and explores the political impact of the employment picture.
Bipartisan Policy Center;
Over the past several decades, native-born Americans have become increasingly detached from the labor force, with declining rates of employment and labor force participation. Seeking explanations, many attempt to blame these trends on immigration itself, under the notion that immigrants both displace native-born workers and drive down their wages. Although superficially appealing, these arguments are ultimately overly simplistic and misguided, as they ignore several other factors driving these trends. Our research suggests that declining native-born labor force participation is largely due to the various options native-born individuals tend to have at their disposal to pursue non-labor force activities—namely retirement, disability, and school enrollment, rather than any direct competition from immigrants. Additionally, native- and foreign-born individuals tend to work in different industries. A majority of the predominantly foreign-born industries are composed of lesser-skill, lower-wage occupations, some of which have seen strong employment growth in recent years, and have even suffered from labor shortages.
Over the past two decades, an innovative approach to workforce development known as sectoral employment has emerged, resulting in the creation of industry-specific training programs that prepare unemployed and underskilled workers for skilled positions and connect them with employers seeking to fill such vacancies. In 2003, with funding from the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, P/PV launched the "Sectoral Employment Impact Study" to rigorously assess whether mature, nonprofit-led sector-focused programs could increase the earnings of disadvantaged workers and job seekers. P/PV selected three organizations to participate in the study -- a community-based organization focused on medical and basic office skills in Boston, a social venture focused on information technology in the Bronx, and an employer-union partnership focused on healthcare, manufacturing and construction in Milwaukee. The study's findings show that program participants earned about $4,500 -- 18 percent -- more than the control group over the course of the study and $4,000 -- 29 percent -- more in the second year alone. Study participants were also more likely to find employment, work more consistently, work in jobs that paid higher wages, and work in jobs that offered benefits. Furthermore, there were earnings gains for each subgroup analyzed, including African Americans, Latinos, immigrants, formerly incarcerated individuals and young adults. Tuning In to Local Labor Markets also examines the strategies employed by the three organizations that took part in the study, as well as the common elements that appeared to be critical to their success. Implications for practice, policy and future research are explored; a forthcoming piece will provide detailed recommendations for policymakers.
From 1980 to 2000, incarceration levels and enforcement of child support policies -- both of which disproportionately affect young, poorly educated African American men -- increased significantly. The authors performed a quantitative study using state-level data to test the effects of these factors on employment and labor force participation. Indeed, incarceration and child support policies contributed to declining employment among this demographic.
Center for Urban Economic Development;
Based on a survey of low-wage workers in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York, examines the prevalence of workplace violations by employer, job, and worker characteristics, including gender and nativity. Calls for a policy agenda to protect workers' rights.
International Labour Organization (ILO);
This report examines the global and regional labour market trends and gaps, including in labour force participation rates, unemployment rates, employment status as well as sectoral and occupational segregation. It also presents a global in-depth analysis of the key drivers of female labour force participation by investigating the personal preferences of women and the societal gender norms and socio-economic constraints that women face.A key finding of this report is that closing these labour market gaps would yield significant economic benefits in terms of GDP growth while at the same time improving individual welfare in multiple dimensions. However, the report finds that there are significant socio-economic and gender norm constraints influencing a woman's decision to participate. Accordingly, the report introduces a comprehensive framework to address the drivers of these gender gaps and outlines a series of policy recommendations to improve the labour market outcomes of women.
The Pew Charitable Trusts;
Focuses on minimum wage laws and unions in surveying the literature on the impact of labor market institutions on employment, economic growth, and income distribution, as well as their effects on intragenerational and intergenerational mobility.
African Development Bank;
This study focuses on labor outcomes of women and youth?the former have moved into low-quality employment, while the latter have high rates of underemployment. Labor market outcomes are examined through geographic analysis and a study of factors affecting employment at the individual level. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data collected by the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). The study uses the two most recent waves of the nationally representative household surveys for 2005/06 and 2010/11. The other source was the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey. The methods used to meet the study objectives were a literature review of previous work on the Rwandan labor market, participation profiling via a descriptive analysis, and econometric analysis of determinants of employment outcomes.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
We use Bureau of Justice Statistics data to estimate that, in 2008, the United States had between 12 and 14 million ex-offenders of working age. Because a prison record or felony conviction greatly lowers ex-offenders' prospects in the labor market, we estimate that this large population lowered the total male employment rate that year by 1.5 to 1.7 percentage points. In GDP terms, these reductions in employment cost the U.S. economy between $57 and $65 billion in lost output.
Building upon the most recent research findings and the expertise of a task force of renowned experts from academia, social partners, private sector and administration on the obstacles to pervasive labour market integration of older workers, EPC and Bertelsmann Stiftung have compiled a set of policy recommendations to work towards more employment opportunities for older workers.