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Kachin Baptist Convention;
People displaced by conflict (IDPs) in Myanmar's Kachin State want to return to their land, yet it is being appropriated unfairly. Legal or administrative procedures are undermining IDP rights, ignoring the exceptional circumstances of displacement. Restrictions on movement are making the situation worse. Action is required to resolve the lack of clarity over IDP land rights and to ensure equitable remedy is available where land has been unfairly acquired. This report is produced by The Durable Peace Programme (DPP), an EU-funded consortium of seven international and local organizations supporting peace, reconciliation, rehabilitation and development in Kachin State since 2015.
Tiger Worm Toilets (TWTs), sometimes known as Tiger Toilets or vermifilter toilets, contain composting worms inside the pit that process and digest the faeces in-situ, replacing the build-up of raw sludge with vermicompost. This removes the need for traditional desludging, as the vermicompost is simpler to remove and builds up at a slower rate. This can lead to a reduction of the long-term operating costs and removes the need for expensive desludging and sludge treatment infrastructure. A worm colony can live inside the toilet indefinitely so long as the correct environmental conditions are maintained.
Analyzes the political and economic conditions in Burma, economic sanctions, and links between the people's economic welfare and human rights. Makes recommendations for a calibrated approach to U.S. engagement and tying the removal of sanctions to reform.
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, randomly selected for review under the governance thematic area. This report documents the findings of a qualitative impact evaluation, carried out in March 2016. The evaluation used PIALA (Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning Approach) to assess the effectiveness of the 'Building equitable and resilient livelihoods in the Dry Zone' in Myanmar.The project aimed to build strong and viable Membership Organisations (MOs) capable of organising community members, lobbying township departments and parliament, establishing business relationships with traders and suppliers, and developing civil society networks with local NGOs and MOs of other villages, in order to create sustainable livelihood opportunities and build resilience against climate-related hazards (e.g. drought and flooding). The underlying assumption was that, by building the capacity of these MOs, behavioural changes would be triggered in a set of key stakeholder relationships and mechanisms that would result in more sustainable livelihood opportunities and conditions. Successful MOs would then inspire and influence other communities to also develop MOs and motivate local governments to support them. The project was coordinated by Oxfam and implemented from May 2011 until end of May 2014 by the Network Activities Group (NAG) in Minbu and Oxfam in Thazi.Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.
After years of international isolation, Myanmar is liberalizing its economy and seeking to attract foreign investment. But while foreign investment can play an important role in developing the country's agriculture sector, in the current environment of limited transparency and accountability, an increase in agribusiness investments poses serious risks to the livelihoods of small-scale farmers and others dependent on land.This paper looks at the level and types of agribusiness investment in Myanmar. It outlines potential risks to communities posed by these investments, and explores state regulation of outbound investments as a way to promote responsible business practices in the sector. The paper makes recommendations to the Government of Myanmar and to investors on improving the scrutiny and monitoring of investments, tackling land rights abuses and ensuring that companies honour their responsibilities to respect human rights.
As Myanmar navigates its rapid economic expansion triggered by the end of military rule in 2010, the development of special economic zones (SEZs) is a key element of the country's industrialization plan. SEZs aim to increase foreign investment and economic growth using special incentives, services and regulations. Their success is usually viewed in terms of economic impacts, overlooking wider social and environmental impacts.This report draws on evidence from the South-East Asia region to explore the impacts of SEZs, with case studies from Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia and Vietnam. It shows that without transparency and accountable governance, or a clear strategy for local linkages, SEZs are more likely to result in harmful environmental and social impacts and fail to deliver expected benefits. As Myanmar proceeds with several SEZ developments, fundamentally transforming livelihoods, it has an opportunity to learn from experiences in the region, to mitigate the negative impacts and to take action to improve prospects for local communities.
The Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment Program (GEWEP) II was implemented over four years from March 2016 through February 2020. GEWEP II worked with and for poor women and girls in some of the world's most fragile states: Burundi, DRC, Mali, Myanmar, Niger and Rwanda. By the end of the program period, GEWEP IIreached more than 1 161 869women and girls, mainly through Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLAs). Norad has supported VSLAs since they were first piloted by CARE in Niger in 1991. Since then, Norad has supported over 49 722 groups encompassing more than 1 150 625 women. This includes GEWEP II and previous programming, which GEWEP II builds on. During GEWEP II, more than 16 070 new groups were established. This is a key method for providing financial services to poor women and girls, and an important contribution towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9, which all mention access to financial services.This report includes results on outcome and output level, of which the outcome level results were presented in detail in the GEWEP II Result Report submitted in May 2019. The table below summarizes the results at outcome level, for the global indicators that were collected across all program countries. These indicators were collected at the population level in the intervention zones. Overall, there has been positive change in the perception and attitude to women's economic, political and social empowerment in the intervention zones. On a national level, there has been positive changes in legislation, but implementation remains a challenge. A few indicators saw negative change. In Burundi, the percentage of women who state they are able to influence decisions went down from baseline, although it is still high at 88%. In Niger, the patriarchy remains strong, but despite challenges in changing men's attitudes, women have reported increased participation and social inclusion. The indicator focusing on women's sole decision-making saw little progress as the program worked more towards joint decision making.
United States Campaign for Burma;
This is research on the Burma/China relationship and why one should boycott the Beijing Olympics.China is the largest overall supporter of the dictatorship in Burma. Currently, China is one of the largest arms suppliers to the military regime, supplying them with over 2 billion US Dollars worth of weapons and military equipment including tanks, fighter jets and military advisors for training. This has allowed Burma's regime to quadruple its size to 450,000 men, including approximately 70,000 child soldiers. China is one of the largest economic supporters of Burma as well. China has more than 2 billion US Dollars worth of investments in Burma, and the government gives Burma hundreds of millions of dollars in grants and loans. Burma relies on China's support. The regime is currently giving up money for natural gas by selling it to China for less than its value to keep China's international political support. China has also voted against UN Sanctions to help the people of Burma.
Open Society Institute;
Documents how decades of repressive rule, civil war, and poor governance in Burma have contributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infectious diseases.
This report provides a brief insight on the value chain of the Social Enterprise (SE) vocational training sector in both Myanmar, highlighting the sector's social impact, innovation, sustainability, and market trends.
Myanmar is undergoing intense and rapid changes. Policies formulated today will determine the future path of political and economic development. Modernization of the country's agricultural sector is, rightly, a priority. However, mechanization and large-scale agricultural investment is not the only option. Small farm development provides a commercially viable option with better outcomes in terms of poverty reduction and positive spillovers to other sectors. Small farms absorb labour, allow communities to build assets and help local markets flourish. It is crucial that Myanmar promotes the right type of agricultural investment - one which supports the country's millions of small-scale farmers and farm labourers, as well as their families.
This discussion paper outlines some of the challenges and opportunities for public financial management (PFM) reform in contributing to deeper social accountability and legitimate governance in the context of Myanmar's wider decentralization and peace process. The paper poses a set of key questions for development actors to consider as they seek to support inclusive reform in Myanmar.