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Social norms refer to the shared expectations held by a given community. They are often held in place by social approval or rewards for conformity, and by disapproval or sanctions for transgressions. Understanding how and why social norms hold sway can provide a powerful means for understanding the gendered division of work that prevails in many communities and inform strategies aimed at promoting change. This report summarizes the main findings from the qualitative research conducted in August 2017 to support on the identification of the main social norms related to unpaid care and domestic work in rural communities in four districts in Zimbabwe. The research served to identify who the leaders are that communities look up to in order to validate social norms change. It helped to identify nascent opportunities for changes in the gendered division of labour, and what the implications are of the findings for planning and practice in addressing inequalities on unpaid care and domestic work.
Fiscal policy can be a powerful tool for governments to help achieve a 'human economy', if these policies are designed to address gender inequalities and the gender biases in current macroeconomic thinking. This report uses the case of one element of fiscal policy - public spending - to demonstrate how such policy design could help achieve gender equality and improve human development outcomes in developing countries.The report identifies unpaid care and domestic work as a key area where fiscal policy has a significant impact on gender equality. Using data from Oxfam's 2017 Household Care Survey in Uganda and Zimbabwe, the report explores the impact on adults' and children's/adolescents' time use of access to improved water sources, electricity, healthcare and childcare. It also considers secondary impacts on measures of well-being and women's empowerment, including women's health and decision making.
Climate change is putting increasing stress on the livelihoods of people living in the world's drylands. Smallholder irrigation has long been seen as a means of improving food security in areas with unpredictable rainfall, and is now being promoted as part of climate change adaptation strategies. The Ruti Irrigation Scheme in Zimbabwe was begun by Oxfam in 2009 with these objectives in mind.This report examines the findings of two evaluations of the project and shows that the irrigation scheme has had more significant social and economic impacts than those measured by a quantitative study alone. However, the positive impacts for wellbeing have not been as extensive as originally hoped - having been affected by extreme weather events and the decision to reserve scarce water for use by sugar estates further downstream.This suggests that while smallholder irrigation schemes can provide important local benefits, these are threatened not only by the usual difficulties associated with their implementation, but also by the greater challenges posed by climate change and the resource conflicts that are being exacerbated as a result. These are problems which require significant changes in policy and practice at catchment-wide, national, and international levels.
This report examines the second phase of Oxfam's Women's Economic Empowerment and Care (We-Care) programme. The first phase focused on building evidence for influencing policy change on women's heavy and unequal unpaid care work in six countries. The second phase of the programme seeks to continue deepening the evidence base; strengthen influencing capacity on unpaid care; develop and test new strategies, resources and approaches; and capture and share learning with the development sector on effective influencing.The report also includes progress reports from three countries in which the programme is active: Uganda, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia.
Care work is essential for personal wellbeing, a healthy society and a functioning economy. But across the world, it is overwhelmingly done by women, which restricts their opportunities. Policy makers rarely recognize the public responsibility for facilitating unpaid care and domestic work through investments in infrastructure and care services.In 2017, Oxfam's Women's Economic Empowerment and Care (WE-Care) initiative conducted a Household Care Survey (HCS), collecting data in the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe, to inform the design of public policies and local development programmes. The study tests which infrastructure, equipment and other factors influence care-work patterns. It finds that access to improved water sources is associated with reduced hours of care work, and household equipment facilitates men's participation in care. It also finds that heavy workloads related to long hours of unpaid care can impact women's health and well-being. Perceptions of care work, community expectations and fear of sanctions for deviating from social norms play an essential part in maintaining the gendered division of care work.The report presents recommendations for government and private sector decision-makers, development practitioners and researchers in the area of women's economic empowerment on how they can contribute to facilitate the recognition, reduction and redistribution of unpaid care work.
Community Technology Development Trust;
Zimbabwean smallholder farmers consider seed security to be an issue of national security. For them, access to the right seeds at the right time, and for the right price, is critical to being able to produce enough food to eat in the face of growing climate disruption. Farmer seed systems and community seed banks provide an important safety net for cash-strapped, vulnerable people. They also help small-scale farmers manage climate risk. Supporting them is an adaptation opportunity that is currently being missed.
Centre for Policy Studies;
The best practice examined in this paper is the Community Foundation for the Western Region of Zimbabwe's system of mobilising funds from rural communities to finance an endowment intended for community development. The case study is based on interviews with members of staff, the Board of Trustees and people involved in some of the projects that the foundation is funding. Staff from an associated organisation that was pivotal in the launch of the foundation have also been interviewed.
Human Sciences Research Council;
This is a multidisciplinary anthology that analyses the Zimbawean crisis and teh coping mechanisms enployed in the the same.
Brooks World Poverty Institute (BWPI);
This paper describes multifaceted crisis that befell Zimbabwe since 2000. The fieldwork from which this paper derives, in November to December 2006, was carried out in the context of the above, just after an exercise in currency renewal, where three zeros were removed, in a state suffering the excesses of state propaganda and fear. Some of the data is corrupted by this numeric confusion and fear induced unwillingness to respond to strangers' questions.
Taylor & Francis Group;
This article utilizes an ethnographic case study of a 'progressive' charismatic congregation in Harare, Zimbabwe, in 2007, to provide evidence that 'pietism' and 'prosperity' are not the only options for charismatic Christianity.
Graduate Centre Humanities and Social Sciences of the Research Academy Leipzig;
This paper reports on a study of human rights and political activism of Zimbabweans in Britain. It aims at analysing the opportunities for, and challenges to, transnational mobilisation and diaspora politics oriented towards the country of origin, Zimbabwe -- a country that has experienced a deterioration of its domestic political and socio-economic situation during the past decade - from the migrants' perspective.