The purpose of this document is to clearly describe the proposed research questions and methodology for an evidence synthesis on practices to identify and prioritize vulnerable populations affected by urban humanitarian emergencies. This protocol outlines the reasons for this evidence synthesis, how the review will be conducted, plans for critical appraisal of included studies and methods of synthesis. The aim of the synthesis is to consolidate the practices (including tools, methods and metrics) reported by practitioners and academics to identify and prioritize vulnerable people, households or communities within populations affected by humanitarian emergencies, including those displaced within and to urban areas. This synthesis is funded through the Humanitarian Evidence Programme, a UK Aid-funded partnership between Oxfam and Feinstein International Center (FIC) at the Friedman School of Nutrition at Tufts University. The Humanitarian Evidence Programme aims to synthesize evidence in the humanitarian sector and communicate the findings to stakeholders, with the ultimate goal of improving humanitarian policy and practice.