This World Bank Study provides a basic diagnostic of residential piped water coverage and affordability in Uganda and its relationship with poverty using a series of nationally representative household surveys for the period 2002–13. The study fi rst analyzes trends in piped water coverage using both administrative and survey data. Demand-side and supply-side factors reducing the take-up of piped water service by households in areas where the service is available are estimated. The study also documents the extent to which piped water coverage enables households to shift time use away from domestic tasks toward market work, and the benefi cial effect that this may have on poverty. The targeting performance to the poor of water subsidies is estimated and results obtained for Uganda are compared with estimates for other countries. Finally, the study analyzes issues related to affordability—including the impact of the tariff increase of 2012 on household consumption, poverty, and piped water affordability—as well as the cost for households to connect to the piped water network.