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This rapid review report has identified the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) options used in emergency settings, with decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) and mobile wastewater treatment units performing most effectively and with minimal costs. Examples are taken from refugee camps and internally displaced people (IDP) settlements due to the Iraq war, the Israeli-Palestine conflict, and the civil wars in Syria and Sudan. WWTP options used in Finland, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Sudan and Turkey are discussed. Lessons learned from China and suggestions for the Rohingya crisis are also included.
Institute of Development Studies (IDS);
A rapid review of the literature has found a selection of innovative WASH options available for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited spaces. Case study information was collated from African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Caribbean countries. As requested, a number of experts were consulted for their opinion where there was a lack of project evaluations or grey literature.
This paper sets out to provide an analysis of what is currently known about the links between climate change and violent conflict, and the policy debates currently taking place on this issue. The purpose is to guide Christian Aid's own practice, and to inform our recommendations to international institutions and donors.
World Bank Group;
With 2.1 billion people – mostly in rural areas – lacking safely managed drinking water and reported low rural water supply functionality rates, the Sustainable Development Goals pose a triple challenge: to reach unserved mostly rural population groups, to raise service levels, and to sustain existing and future services. This assessment uses a multi-country case study approach to identify good practices and challenges toward building sector capacity and strengthening sustainable service delivery models for rural areas. Recognizing the limitations of the Demand Responsive Approach, the emergence of various management models, the identified need for ongoing support to rural service providers, and the critical role of enabling institutions and policies beyond the community-level, the added value of this assessment lies in: i) the development of a comprehensive analytical framework that can be used to analyze and operationalize a more sustainable service delivery approach for rural water supply; ii) the rich set of cases and good practices from the 16 countries informing the global body of "knowledge in implementation," and iii) the formulation of recommendations and policy directions to improve the sustainability of services depending on sector development stage. Policy recommendations are centered around five areas: institutional capacity, financing, asset management, water resources management, and monitoring and regulatory oversight.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
This review, published jointly by the Center for Economic and Policy Research and the Haiti Advocacy Working Group, looks at the US State Department's annual reports on US assistance to Haiti mandated under the 2014 Assessing Progress in Haiti Act. The review analyzes the various components of the reports and identifies significant omissions and deficiencies, including incomplete data, a failure to link projects and outcomes, and a failure to adequately identify mistakes and lessons learned.In addition, the review shares feedback from Haitian civil society groups and makes recommendations on how the US Agency for International Development and the State Department can improve future progress reports.
Fondation de France;
The French Agency for Development (AFD) and the French Foundation both gave support in Haïti after the earthquake of 2010. This report is a common assessment of their investment. In this framework, the collaboration between stakeholders is essential, as between those who support long term development, like the French Agency for Development, and those who react to a specific crisis, like the French Foundation in the case of Haïti. This common evaluation is a first collaborative step for both institutions towards future partnerships.
Hauser Institute For Civil Society at Harvard Kennedy School;
The Hauser Institute conducted a new study exploring the value, parameters, and sustainability of a Haiti Funders Forum. In collaboration with The Haiti Fund at the Boston Foundation and with support from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, researchers Paula Johnson and Colleen Kelly conducted a series of conversations with funder network leaders, individual interviews with Haiti funders, and a survey of a broad range of funders and other constituents to analyze and assess the potential activities and operational issues of a forum. The creation of a Haiti Funders Forum would aim to increase the effectiveness of philanthropy in Haiti by promoting information sharing, networking, and collaboration among grantmakers and social investors and through advocacy for increased philanthropy to and within the country.
The report summarizes the findings and makes recommendations on a Forum's values, mission, and goals; functions and activities; and institutional and operational aspects.
On 12 January 2010, a massive earthquake hit Haiti’s capital Port-au-Prince, killing 220,000 people, injuring 300,000 and severely damaging great swaths of the city. While enormous challenges remain as the country continues its recovery, Oxfam is committed to helping Haitians and their government to build a stronger, more resilient nation.
This progress report highlights Oxfam’s work in Haiti in 2014 in water, sanitation and public health; and in disaster risk reduction, economic development and reconstruction. It also summarizes the funding and spending for Oxfam’s response to the Haiti earthquake.
Haiti has long faced severe natural and human-created hazards due to its location in the Caribbean hurricane zone and to widespread deforestation. Hazards including storms, floods, and droughts have highly destructive impacts on buildings, land, water, livestock, and people in Haiti. The poorest Haitians, including low-income women, children, and elderly people, are especially vulnerable.
The prospects for building Haiti's resilience to climate change are closely tied to post-earthquake reconstruction. As Haiti prepares for more disasters and rebuilds significant parts of its infrastructure, there is a real opportunity to integrate climate resilience into these efforts.
This report analyses Haiti's adaptive capacity, adaptation options, and finance and governance issues. It makes recommendations on resilience building and identifies climate-change adaptation needs and opportunities.
Save the Children;
January 12, 2010, was a day of profound tragedy for Haiti. Four years after Haiti's epic earthquake, the numbers are still hard to accept. Over 230,000 people were killed in a matter of moments and 1.5 million others were displaced. More than 70,000 homes, businesses and public buildings were destroyed.
The national government was crippled; the dead included 25 percent of all civil servants. Nearly 5,000 schools were damaged or destroyed as the ground convulsed beneath the capital of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding countryside. A fragile government, poor infrastructure and insecurity exponentially compounded the earthquake's impact, and left the population vulnerable to the cholera epidemic that affected over 630,000 people from October 2010, as well as hurricanes and tropical storms that caused flooding and wreaked havoc in 2012 and 2013.
An end is in sight. Over 89% of the displaced population has left the camps; the incidence of cholera has been halved since the outbreak in 2010; severe food insecurity has been brought down from 1.5 million affected people in early 2013 to 600,000 by October 2013. Such progress was made possible by the power of your support, combined with our work and the incredible efforts of the Haitian people themselves.
Now is the time to capitalize on this progress to achieve real lasting change. Now is the time to impact the lives of Haiti's most vulnerable. Now is the time to move together towards a brighter future for Haiti's children. These children still have critical unmet needs and acute vulnerabilities, requiring proven life and livelihood-saving interventions.
In 2010, after a decade focused on its home city of Boston, the Barr Foundation launched a pilot in global grantmaking. Over the next three years, guided by a vision for a vibrant, just, and sustainable world with hopeful futures for children, the foundation engaged with over 20 organizations striving to improve the lives of children and families living in poverty in East Africa, India, and Haiti. This booklet summarizes their approach, grant investments, and learning from this initiative.
American Red Cross;
The American Red Cross is continuing to rebuild what the earthquake destroyed in Haiti. In the quake's immediate aftermath, they worked side by side with our Red Cross partners to provide lifesaving relief supplies. Since that time, they have helped nearly 4.4 million Haitians to get back on their feet. This report describes the accomplishments and challenges of the past four years.